Hepatitis C in several risk groups: Literature review


  • Albiona Rashiti-Bytyçi
  • Naser Ramadani
  • Ariana Kalaveshi
  • Sefedin Muçaj
  • Luljeta Gashi
  • Premtim Rashiti




Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the distribution of hepatitis C in selected risk groups such as haemodialysis patients, pregnant women, healthcare workers, HIV-HCV co-infected patients, patients with mental health diseases and piercing and tattoo procedures. Furthermore, it aimed at evidencing common transmitting routes and highlighting the importance of preventive measures among these groups.


Methods: The literature review was conducted using online databases (Medline) with search query involving the keyword “hepatitis C” in conjunction with keywords describing risk groups such as "dialysis", or "haemodialysis", or "pregnancy", or "pregnant", or "mental health", or "tattoo", or "piercing", or "HIV", or "health professionals”.


Results: After assessing all the retrieved publications, 39 of them were considered for inclusion: 17 on haemodialysis patients, 7 on pregnant women, 8 on HIV-HCV co-infection and 7 publications on health professionals, patients of mental health wards and piercing and tattoo procedures. The high rate of hepatitis C is still a high problem and in some cases it is considered as a new issue, as in the case of pregnancy. Some of the transmission routes have been identified earlier, such as the HIV-HCV co-infection but some, such as piercing and tattoo, are becoming new transmission routes. Health professionals are still identified as high risk group while mental health patients are a potentially high risk group.


Conclusion: Even though some patients are routinely screened for hepatitis C, there are indications for performing such a routine test in other groups. In almost all of the risk groups, it is advocated to use stricter preventive measures and to disseminate knowledge on risks of hepatitis C.


Conflict of interest: None declared.




How to Cite

Rashiti-Bytyçi, A., Ramadani, N., Kalaveshi, A., Muçaj, S., Gashi, L., & Rashiti, P. (2023). Hepatitis C in several risk groups: Literature review. South Eastern European Journal of Public Health. https://doi.org/10.56801/seejph.vi.193



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