Managing Antimicrobial Resistance from Medical and Veterinary Health Sys-tems Perspectives to Achieving Universal Health Coverage in the African Re-gion
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to global health security and may reverse the gains in preventive medicine. This is worsened by the fact that development of resistance out-paces that of new antimicrobials. The factors driving the development of AMR range from health systems to socio-economic and environmental factors. These include poor antimicrobial stewardship, poor access to quality drugs, prescribing antimicrobials without susceptibility laboratory tests, use of antimicrobials in crop, animal production and aquaculture farming. Others are lack of coordinated medical and veterinary health systems strengthening, poor universal health coverage and practice of one health. The burden of the problem is of public health importance especially in Africa where there is high incidence of poverty, high incidence of out-of-pocket health expenditure, lack of basic social amenities and weak health systems with poor collaboration. The impact of AMR includes increased burden on the healthcare system, hospital admission, cost of patient treatment, poor clinical outcomes and impact on food security, among others. In view of the interplay of various systems and factors in the development and emergence of AMR, there is need for multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary approach at global, regional, national and local levels for its prevention and mitigation. Strengthening of health systems from the medical and veterinary perspectives and universal health coverage are critical in the fight against AMR. The relevant stakeholders include political leaders, community leaders, health professionals, academics, and research institutions, federal and state ministries of health, agriculture, education and Nongovernmental organisations among others.
Conflict of interest: None declared
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