South Eastern European Journal of Public Health (SEEJPH) https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph <p>The South Eastern European Journal of Public Health (SEEJPH) is an open-access international peer-reviewed journal involving all areas of health sciences and public health. Devoted to the global health SEEJPH welcomes submissions of scientists, researchers, and practitioners from all over the world, but particularly pertinent to southern and eastern countries in transition.</p> en-US gburazeri@gmail.com (Prof. Genc Burazeri PhD) ojs.ub@uni-bielefeld.de (OJS-Team of Bielefeld University Library) Mon, 21 Sep 2020 07:53:05 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 SEEJPH E-Collection 2014-2020 https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/4211 <h2><a href="https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/announcement/view/55"> SEEJPH E-Collection 2014-2020</a></h2> <div class="summary"> <p><strong>Important publications in SEEJPH<br></strong></p> <p>Since 2014 the South Eastern European Journal of Public Health published 15 volumes, time to celebrate and to reflect. With this intend our publisher Jacobs Company assembled still relevant papers published throughout the years. Here are the key themes:</p> <ul> <li class="show">European Health Policy</li> <li class="show">Public Health Professionalization</li> <li class="show">Public Health Ethics</li> <li class="show">Primary Care</li> <li class="show">Children and Youth Health</li> <li class="show">Women Health</li> <li class="show">Regional Perspective: South Eastern Europe</li> <li class="show">The Global Perspective</li> </ul> <p>We are proud to present this electronic collection to our readers and the general public. You can scroll through it at: <strong><a href="https://www.jacobs-verlag.de/international-public-health/">https://www.jacobs-verlag.de/international-public-health/</a></strong>. You will be surprised how much you missed.</p> <p>Dr. Hans Jacobs, Lage, Germany<br>Prof. Genc Burazeri, Maastricht, The Netherlands</p> </div> Hans Jacobs Copyright (c) 2020 Hans Jacobs https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/4211 Wed, 03 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Women in Montenegro exhibit a high degree of happiness and life satisfaction: Data from the Multiple Independent Cluster Survey 2018 https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/4116 <p><strong>Aim</strong>: Montenegrin government is increasingly aware of the key role of women in the society and attempts to improve social cohesion among Montenegrin people. Precondition is a high degree of life satisfaction and happiness.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: We used the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) of 2018 to analyse the distribution and interaction of 22 potential determinants out of 383 variables available. The participation rate was 77.7 or 2,276 women aged 15-49 years out of 2,928 invited. As data quality turned out to be limited, we employed a data mining approach, i.e. an interactive Classification and Regression Tree (C&amp;RT). Happiness was measured ranging from very happy to very unhappy on a categorical scale of 5 steps</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Of all Montenegrin women 70.7% declared themselves as very happy. Likewise, a 10-point scale of life satisfaction classifies 82.0% of the sample in the top ranks 8-10. Furthermore, 73.6% of the women expect the next year to be even better. Wealth, younger age, and marriage or living in union determine the status of happiness.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Women in Montenegro exhibit a high degree of self-reported happiness and life satisfaction. Montenegrin policies should continue to support the role of women in the society.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Conflicts of interest: </strong>None declared.</p> Agima Ljaljevic, Helmut Wenzel, Ulrich Laaser Copyright (c) 2020 Agima Ljaljevic, Helmut Wenzel, Ulrich Laaser https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/4116 Wed, 27 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Albania https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/4164 <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD and its associated factors among adults in Albania.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Albania in 2013-14. A nation-wide representative sample of 1200 adults aged ≥40 years was selected using multistage cluster sampling technique. All participants were interviewed about socio-demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms, smoking status and clinical characteristics. Spirometry was performed according to standard methods. COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio &lt;70% predicted.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 1200 adults invited to participate, 939 adults or 78% (467 men and 472 women) were eligible for the study. The overall COPD prevalence (GOLD stage 1 or higher) was 12.4%; it was higher in men (17.4%) than in women (7.7%). Using Lower Limit of Normal (LLN), the prevalence of COPD was 9.9%, again higher in men (13.2%) than women (6.6%). The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed COPD was 1.3% (1.9% in men, 0.6 % in women). Male sex, smoking and increasing age were significantly associated with COPD diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The overall prevalence of COPD in Albania was 9.9% using BOLD standards. Smoking and increasing age were the main risk factors for COPD. The study highlights the importance of raising awareness of COPD among health professionals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conflicts of interest: </strong>None declared.</p> Holta Tafa, Donika Mema, Arian Mezini, Jolanda Nikolla, Alma Teferici, Dafina Todri, Genc Burazeri, Hasan Hafizi Copyright (c) 2020 Holta Tafa, Donika Mema, Arian Mezini, Jolanda Nikolla, Alma Teferici, Dafina Todri, Genc Burazeri, Hasan Hafizi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/4164 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Socially responsible human resources management and stakeholders’ Health Promotion: A conceptual paper https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/4046 <p>The prime objective of this paper is to propose a new conceptual framework for how integrating corporate social responsibility (CSR) and human resources management (HRM) can impact on stakeholders’ health and wellbeing. The proposed framework argues that integrative socially responsible HRM (SR-HRM) policies coupled with public health literacy and integrative responsible leadership can play a significant role in shaping health behaviour change of internal stakeholders, which in turn can spill over to external stakeholders (family and proximate communities).</p> <p>From a health promotion and population health perspective, we see human resources (HR) as a leading partner in educating employees on the value of CSR and public health literacy programmes, and also as providing action plans on how to strategically and successfully implement these types of programmes. By helping to develop action plans to analyse CRS and public health literacy activities, HR professionals will be promoting both corporate citizenship and health behaviour change. Both of these are vital for developing a culture of social responsibility (and achieving the triple bottom line (TBL)) and sustainable population health promotion. Henceforth, SR-HRM policies and practices could help business organizations to contribute to the achievement of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and specifically Goals 3 and 8. This novel framework, which is especially pertinent to public health, has not yet been tested empirically. Hence, future studies are warranted to empirically test the theoretical framework using field data collection.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Acknowledgements</strong></p> <p>The authors would like to thank Dr Jesus Barrena-Martínez for his valuable comments and suggestions on the conceptual framework. GM is grateful for the support of the Department of Public Health and Sports Science at the University of Gävle, through the CSR-PhAM Programme and RELeSH project.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conflicts of interest: </strong>None declared.</p> Gloria Macassa, Gianpaolo Tomaselli Copyright (c) 2020 Gloria Macassa, Gianpaolo Tomaselli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/4046 Tue, 22 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 National disaster preparedness and emergency response of nurses in Germany: An exploratory qualitative study https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/3972 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to explore the German nurses’ perceptions of their knowledge, roles and experience in the field of national preparedness and emergency response.</p> <p><br><strong>Methods:</strong> An exploratory qualitative design was used with open-ended questions during semi-structured interviews with qualified nurses currently working in hospitals. The setting of the study consisted of wards of different hospitals in three northern federal states of Germany. The data analysis was done by summarizing analysis of the contents. From a convenient sample of n=31 hospitals, n=13 nurses were included in the study.</p> <p><br><strong>Results:</strong> The median age of the participants was 45 years and 38% were female. Within the three professional socialization fields, knowledge, roles and experience, 17 themes were clustered.</p> <p><br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Within the themes of knowledge, role and experience in national disaster prepared-ness and emergency response, similarities and differences were explored in comparison to inter-national literature.</p> <p><br><strong>Source of funding:</strong> This study did not receive any form of financial or other support.</p> <p><br><strong>Acknowledgements</strong>: We would like to thank the nurses who participated in this study. We would also like to thank the nursing managers of the hospitals, the head of the departments and the head nurses for approaching their employees and colleagues.</p> <p><br><strong>Conflict of interest:</strong> None declared</p> Thomas Grochtdreis, Peter Schröder-Bäck, Niels Harenberg, Stefan Görres, Nynke de Jong Copyright (c) 2020 Thomas Grochtdreis, Peter Schröder-Bäck, Niels Harenberg, Stefan Görres, Nynke de Jong https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/3972 Sun, 29 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Can Russia’s high mortality return until 2030 to trajectory of the 1980-ies and reach the SDGs evenly across the country? https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/3813 <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study reviews the ability of the Russian Federation to reduce the high mortality until 2030 evenly across the country and in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We adopted the method suggested by Haenszel for estimating Premature Years of Life Lost for the age group &lt;70 years and applied a projected reduction of 33% by 2030 as proposed for SDG 3.4. To calculate the potential time gap we used the model of the United Nations Development Programme and standardized the rates by the OECD 1980 Standard Population employing the direct method.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>If Russia keeps the present level of effort the reduction by one third of the level of premature mortality as in 2013 will be in reach already in 2024 i.e. 5.9 years in advance of the SDG 3 target for 2030. This target is achieved quite evenly also throughout the 8 districts of the Russian Federation between 10.6 and 5.0 years in advance and in selected special districts/republics with the highest and lowest mortality rates.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>After the steep decrease of life expectancy during the 1990ies the Russian Federation returned to the original trajectory.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>gap analysis, premature mortality, public health, Russian Federation, SDG.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Conflicts of interest: </strong>None declared.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Statement of Funding: </strong>None declared.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><span style="color: #222222; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;"><strong>Note</strong>: Valery Chernyavskiy, Helmut Wenzel, Julia Mikhailova, Alla Ivanova, Elena Zemlianova, Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic</span><sub style="color: #222222; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">,</sub><span style="color: #222222; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;"> Alexander Mikhailov, Ulrich Laaser. Can Russia’s high mortality return until 2030 to trajectory of the 1980ies and reach the sdgs evenly across the country? Published 13 November 2020 in parallel by: </span><em style="color: #222222; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Social'nye aspekty zdorov'a naselenia / Social aspects of population health</em><span style="color: #222222; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;"> [serial online] 2020; 66(5):14; </span><strong style="color: #222222; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">DOI: 10.21045/2071-5021-2020-66-5-<wbr />12. Available</span></strong><span style="color: #222222; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;"> from: </span><a style="color: #1155cc; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff;" href="http://vestnik.mednet.ru/content/view/1205/30/lang,ru/" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=http://vestnik.mednet.ru/content/view/1205/30/lang,ru/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1607590525597000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHFIvKbFW4oWPMQ0M-4nfEauCIvJQ">http://vestnik.mednet.ru/<wbr />content/view/1205/30/lang,ru</a></p> Valery Chernyavskiy, Helmut Wenzel, Julia Mikhailova, Alla Ivanova, Elena Zemlyanova, Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Alexander Mikhailov, Ulrich Laaser Copyright (c) 2020 Valery Chernyavskiy, Helmut Wenzel, Julia Mikhailova, Alla Ivanova, Elena zemlyanova, Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Alexander Mikhailov, Ulrich Laaser https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/3813 Wed, 09 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Professionalization of Public Health – an exploratory case study https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/3845 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Public health is continuously challenged by a shortage of workforce. There are various reasons for this: 1) public health is less visible than traditional health professions and people may be unfamiliar with the nature and opportunities involved in entering this career field; 2) lack of official recognition of public health as a professional category; and 3) no umbrella organization that supports its members and governs professional standards as is the case of other more established professions. To adequately address the challenges of public health for the 21<sup>st</sup> century, a key policy element will need to focus on adequately cultivating, training and growing the future workforce of professionals in the field. The aim of this study was to examine why professionalization of public health in Europe is not as robust as it deserves to be and what steps can be taken to assure an adequate supply of professionals with the proper education and training background, and career guidance to tackle the public health needs of the future.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A case study approach was used collecting data via a scoping literature review, a focus group with public health students and interviews with public health experts for convergence. Data was analysed using directed content analysis and pattern matching logic.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Public health fulfilled five out of seven attributes of a profession, such as skills, training and education, certification and an altruistic service. Recognition of Public Health as multidisciplinary and multi-professional field, derived from the interviews as an additional characteristic. A code of ethics and professional conduct and a formal organization were missing.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Public health professionals and organisations that govern best practices in this field should consider introducing a shared code of ethics and professional conduct as well as establishing a coordinated body to help advance the public status as a the profession to increase interest in studying and specializing in this area.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Conflicts of interest: </strong>None declared.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Hilke Mansholt, Katarzyna Czabanowska, Robert Otok, Jascha de Nooijer Copyright (c) 2020 Hilke Mansholt, Katarzyna Czabanowska, Robert Otok, Jascha de Nooijer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/3845 Mon, 28 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Childhood adversity and leisure time physical and sports activity in older adults: A cross-sectional analysis from the International Mobility in Aging Study https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/3890 <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The purpose is to examine the relationship between childhood adversity and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among community-dwelling older adults from high and middle-income sites.</p> <p><br><strong>Methods</strong>: Cross-sectional analysis of 2012 data from older adult ages 64-75 years old from King-ston, Canada; St. Hyacinthe, Canada; Tirana, Albania; Manizales, Colombia; and Natal, Brazil. Principal exposure variables were childhood social and economic adversity. Covariates included participant age, sex, income, and educational attainment. Outcome variables were LTPA and lei-sure time sports activity (LTSA).</p> <p><br><strong>Results</strong>: High-income sites had higher LTPA prevalence than middle-income sites. Females were less likely to engage in LTPA compared to males in Tirana (OR:0.53, 95%CI:0.30-0.94), but were more likely to engage in LTPA in Manizales (OR:2.54, 95%CI:1.54-4.18). Low education was less likely than high education to engage in LTPA in Kingston (OR:0.38, 95%CI:0.19-0.73) and Natal (OR: 0.52, 95%CI:0.28-0.97). Low income was less likely than high income to engage in LTPA in St. Hyacinthe (OR: 0.42, 95%CI:0.20-0.89) and Manizales (OR:0.33, 95%CI:0.16-0.55). In Tirana, low income was more likely than high income to engage in LTPA (OR:5.27, 95%CI:2.06-13.51).</p> <p><br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Childhood economic and social adversity were not significantly associated with LTPA. Sex, income, and education were associated with older adult PA engagement, however the direction of the association varied by site location. This suggests that the paradigms surrounding PA behavior may vary from city to city. Understanding the site-specific risk factors to PA engage-ment may better inform clinical recommendations and public health approaches to increase PA engagement among older adults across the globe.</p> <p><br><strong>Conflicts of interest</strong>: None declared.</p> Phoebe W. Hwang, Cristiano dos Santos Gomes, Mohammad Auais, Kathryn L. Braun, Catherine M. Pirkle Copyright (c) 2020 Phoebe W. Hwang, Cristiano dos Santos Gomes, Mohammad Auais, Kathryn L. Braun, Catherine M. Pirkle https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/3890 Mon, 26 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The health of the public: What has gone wrong? https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/3996 <p>COVID-19, a new pandemic, has swept the world. How could this have happened? In theory the world should have been prepared, armed as it has been since 2005 with a new set of International Health Regulations with universal commitment by WHO Member States. Yet disaster has struck. The authors of this paper consider that fundamental rethinking is needed, with a new review of the post-World War 2 international system for global governance for health. Whilst WHO and its present and future actions will be scrutinized, the organization is fundamentally made up of 194 Member States, which must share the responsibility for ensuring better global health protection in the future. It is clear the world needs a more effective WHO, but it also needs countries to support and develop their public health infrastructure to face today’s more complex health challenges, which can only grow in scope and complexity over coming years. The paper proposes several key steps to achieve these goals.</p> <p><strong>Conflict of interest:</strong> None declared.</p> Richard Alderslade, Mihaly Kokeny, Agis Tsouros Copyright (c) 2020 Richard Alderslade, Mihaly Kokeny, Agis Tsouros https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/3996 Mon, 07 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 How the Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh, India, fought Corona https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/3963 <p><strong> Background</strong>: Kurnool, one of the four districts in the Rayalaseema region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, emerged as a COVID-19 hotspot by mid-April 2020.</p> <p><br><strong>Method</strong>: The authors compiled the publicly available information on different public health measures in Kurnool district and related them to the progression of COVID-19 from March to May 2020.</p> <p><br><strong>Results</strong>: Two surges in pandemic progression of COVID-19 were recorded in Kurnool. The ini-tial upsurge in cases was attributed to return of people from other Indian states, along with return of participants of a religious congregation in Delhi, followed by in-migration of workers and truckers from other states and other districts of Andhra Pradesh, particularly from the state of Maharashtra (one of the worst affected states in India) and Chennai (the Koyambedu wholesale market - epicenter of the largest cluster of COVID-19 in Tamil Nadu). In a quick response to surging infections the state government launched operation ‘Kurnool Fights Corona’ to contain the outbreak. Kurnool had taken a targeted approach to testing, scaled up testing in areas with high case load, and conducted contact tracing for each positive case, along with requisitioning oxygenated beds in the district hospitals to meet the anticipated spurt in the number of positive cases. This combined approach paid rich dividends and from 26th April to May 9th, the growth curve flattened.</p> <p><br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Although the in migration of laborers and return of residents from other Indian states and abroad during the COVID-19 pandemic was a complex challenge, the timely actions of testing, tracing and isolation conducted by the district authorities in Kurnool greatly reduced transmission. Although this response assessment is based on a single district, the perspectives have revealed some important lessons regarding risk communication, preparedness and response for pandemics which will facilitate consolidation of the policy and program response to pandem-ics in future.</p> <p><strong>Acknowledgement</strong>: Dr Sanjoy Sadhukhan (Professor, AIIH&amp;PH) and District Authorities of Kurnool for their support.<br>Conflicts of interest: None.</p> Madhumita Dobe, Monalisha Sahu Copyright (c) 2020 Madhumita Dobe, Monalisha Sahu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/3963 Wed, 18 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000